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Topical Resource Lists for Grantmakers

Replicating Grant Programs: A Topical Resource List

The following resources detail ways for grantmakers to replicate successful programs and services as a way to maximize giving impact.

Bradach, Jeffrey L. "Going to Scale: The Challenge of Replicating Social Programs." Stanford Social Innovation Review vol. 1 (Spring 2003) p. 18-25.
Bradach ponders the analogy between replication in the nonprofit arena and franchising in the business sector, looking at how the third sector might learn from the lessons that are available from corporate practices and experience. He also delves into the relationship between local affiliates and a central headquarters. Available online.

Conservation Company, Public/Private Ventures, and Pew Charitable Trusts. Building from Strength: Replication as a Strategy for Expanding Social Programs that Work. Philadelphia, PA: Replication and Program Services, Inc. 1993.
Investigates the potential of replication for extending the scale of effective services in the fields of domestic social programs. Gathers information on the cost-effective use of scarce resources, and considers possible steps that might be taken by foundations and public agencies to help promising local programs expand their activities to new sites. Available online.

Curtis, Lynn A. "Lessons from the Street: Capacity Building and Replication." Journal for Nonprofit Management vol. 5 (Summer 2001) p. 18-35.
Describes the technical assistance model in place at the Milton S. Eisenhower Foundation. With bibliographic references. Available online.

Fairfield, Kent D. and Kennard T. Wing. "Collaboration in Foundation Grantor-Grantee Relationships." Nonprofit Management & Leadership, vol. 19 (Fall 2008): p. 27-44.
An exploratory study of the relations between foundations and their grantee organizations, noting the traits of productive collaborations and offering suggestions on how to replicate these cooperative funder-grantee relationships. The authors base their research on a focus group of five nonprofit chief executives, and interviews with representatives from eight foundations and eight nonprofits.

Growing Smarter: Achieving Sustainability in Emerging Community Foundations. San Francisco, CA: James Irvine Foundation, 2007. (Insight Community Foundations Series).
This paper on young and emerging community foundations explores sustainability issues that are also relevant to community foundations of any size that are growing in scale. The report examines the experiences of nine community foundations that participated in the James Irvine Foundation's Community Foundations Initiative II, plus 15 other community foundations across the United States. Available online.

Racine, David. "Dissolving Dualities: The Case for Commonsense Replication." Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly vol. 32 (June 2003) p. 307-14.

Schreter, Carol A. and Steven W. Brummel. "What Foundations Call Funding Opportunities." Fund Raising Management vol. 20 (July 1989) p. 32, 34, 38-9.
Examines how foundations seek to fund projects with a "multiplier effect," which allows a grant to achieve long-term and broad-scale impact. Understanding this approach to grantmaking can help project planners and fundraisers who wish to attract foundation support.

Summerville, Geri and Becca Raley. Laying a Solid Foundation: Strategies for Effective Program Replication. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures, 2009.
A guide on program replication that explores a number of topics, including evaluation, staffing, training, communications, partnerships, data collection, site selection, technical assistance, and public policy. Available online.

What Do We Mean By Scale? Washington, DC: Grantmakers for Effective Organizations, 2011.
This briefing paper examines what has been learned about grantmaker practices that support grantees addressing social issues. Scaling is discussed in particular, which may be defined as the expansion, replication and adaptation of programs to new areas or populations, or the deepening of programs within an already-served area. Topic one of the "Scaling What Works" learning initiative of Grantmakers for Effective Organizations.
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