Skip directly to page content.
Foundation Center
Home Profile Search Site Map Ask Us Donate Now
About Us Locations Newsletters Press Room PND
Knowledge to build on.  
Get Started

Welcome
- New Visitors
- Individual Grantseekers
- Nonprofit Grantseekers
- Grantmakers
- Legislators and Policymakers
- International Visitors
- People With Disabilities
- Children and Youth
- Reporters/Media

Get Answers
- Knowledge Base
- Ask Us
- Topical Resource Lists

Learn About
- Foundations and Fundraising
- Proposal Writing
- Nonprofit Management
- Tools and Resources

Training Courses
- Classroom Training
- Online Training
- Training Videos
- Webinars

Library/Learning Centers
- Atlanta
- Cleveland
- New York
- San Francisco
- Washington, DC
- Funding Information Network
Topical Resource Lists

September 11: The Philanthropic Response
A Resource List

This bibliography of books, pamphlets, and articles related to September 11 is selected from the Catalog of Nonprofit Literature, the Foundation Center's free, searchable catalog of the published material about philanthropy. The listing is organized in alphabetical order by author or main entry, and contains descriptive abstracts for most entries. Several of the entries contain URLs, indicating where entire reports can be located on the Internet.

This bibliography is printed in its entirety in the Foundation Center's book, September 11: The Philanthropic Response. The citations date from September 2001 through mid-2004. Much of the literature during that period related to the establishment of charities to aid victims, data on the monies contributed, controversies that arose over disbursement of funds, and the impact on fundraising throughout the nonprofit sector. More general works provide essays by various specialists on the nature of philanthropy and generosity. To keep up with new materials being published on this topic, refer to the Catalog of Nonprofit Literature using the subject heading "September 11 terrorist attacks."

Abshire, Michael. "E-Philanthropy Continues to Grow." Corporate Philanthropy Report, vol. 17 (April 2002): p. 1, 11.
Reports on the Third Annual E-Philanthropy Conference that took place in March 2002 in McLean, VA. The role of Internet fundraising after the attacks of September 11 took center stage, and several statistics about the amounts raised are provided. Other speakers focused on the role of the Internet in soliciting volunteers and in sharing information about corporate donations.

Abshire, Michael. "The Funding in the (Auto) 'Parts'." Corporate Philanthropy Report, vol. 17 (February 2002): p. 1, 11.

Describes giving trends within the automotive component sector in the wake of the September 11 attacks and the recession.

Anft, Michael. "Assisting Terrorism's Other Victims." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 15 (4 September 2003): p. 7-8, 10.
Explains that more foundations have begun to support charities that serve immigrants from Arab and predominantly Muslim countries facing post-September 11 backlash in the United States. Smaller organizations, however, have found fundraising difficult under the increased scrutiny of federal investigators looking for ties to terrorist groups.

Anft, Michael. "Immigrant-Rights Organizations Face Fallout from September 11." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (10 January 2002): p. 18-9.
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, nonprofit immigration groups have found it more difficult to fundraise and draw support for immigrants' rights.

Association of Fundraising Professionals. Study of the Impact of the Events of September 11 on Charities. Alexandria, VA: Association of Fundraising Professionals, 2002. 49 p.
Reports findings from an Association of Fundraising Professionals survey studying the effects of the September 11 attacks on fundraising. The survey was conducted from November 2001 to early January 2002, with 248 members responding. The report covers the effect of September 11 on specific fundraising campaigns, including direct mail, planned giving, major gifts, online solicitation, and annual campaigns. Also describes the impact of September 11 on fundraising strategies, donor attitudes, and business operations.

Baron, Barnett F. "Philanthropy and Homeland Security." Foundation News & Commentary, vol. 45 (May-June 2004): p. 30-3.
Baron analyzes the USA PATRIOT Act and its impact on international grantmaking. The U.S. Treasury Department has indicated its concern that philanthropy may be a major source of support for terrorist activity, but a recent report by the General Accounting Office has called that supposition into question.

Bernacchi, Gina. "Corporate Giving Picks Up Despite Weak Economy, Attacks." NonProfit Times, vol. 15 (1 November 2001): p. 1, 10, 12.
At this time it appears that corporate giving will increase substantially in 2001 over 2000, perhaps largely due to the September 11 attacks.

Bernacchi, Gina. "Giving Grew after September 11 Terror Attacks." NonProfit Times, vol. 16 (1 June 2002): p. 1, 6.
Discusses the impact of the September 11 terrorist attacks on fundraising, analyzing results from reports published by the Association of Fundraising Professionals. While arts, cultural, and humanities organizations witnessed a decline in donations in October 2001, year-end fundraising totals of nearly all nonprofits were higher than in 2000.

"Beyond September 11: Where Do We Go from Here?" Carnegie Reporter, vol. 1 (Summer 2002): 45 p.

Blum, Debra E. "Hundreds of Displaced N.Y. Charities Face Financial, Other Losses in Attack." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 13 (4 October 2001): p. 12.
Describes how nonprofits in lower Manhattan are coping with the damage caused by the September 11 terrorist attacks. Explains that many organizations not directly affected by the disaster will witness a growing demand in social services. Provides a list of grantmakers and other nonprofits that are offering financial and technical support.

Blum, Debra E. "New Telemarketing Law Called Too Restrictive by Some Fund Raisers." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (15 November 2001): p. 21.
The Federal Trade Commission has new authority to regulate appeals by telemarketers; those in the industry claim the rules are burdensome. HR 3162 is a broad anti-terrorism bill that included these new regulations in the anticipation of fraudulent fundraising schemes after the September 11 attacks.

Borochoff, Daniel. Congressional Testimony on the Charities Response to the September 11 Terrorist Attack for Subcommittee on Oversight of the Committee on Ways and Means, November 8, 2001. American Institute of Philanthropy, 4 p.
Borochoff, president of the American Institute of Philanthropy, gave testimony to the U.S. Congress, and this is a reprint of his text.

Brody, Deborah A. "In for the Long Haul in the Capital City." Foundation News & Commentary, vol. 42 (November-December 2001): p. 32-4.
Describes how foundations in Washington D.C. have been working more closely together after the September 11 attacks. Grantmakers and nonprofits have learned the importance of long-term planning from the Oklahoma bombing six years earlier.

Carpenter, Clint. "Cancelled Revenues: Attacks Hurt Annual Events, Cash Flow." NonProfit Times, vol. 16 (1 February 2002): p. 27-9.
Discusses the impact of the September 11 attacks on several annual conferences. Organizations covered include the Association for Healthcare Philanthropy, the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education, the American Society of Association Executives, and the National Catholic Development Conference.

Carpenter, Clint. "September 11 Impact on Overall Giving Sparks Diverse Opinions." NonProfit Times, vol. 16 (1 July 2002): p. 1, 5-6.

Carpenter, Clint; Causer, Craig; Clolery, Paul; Williamson, Richard. "We Shall Overcome: Charities Rally Nation, Lend Aid after Attacks." NonProfit Times, vol. 15 (1 October 2001): p. 1, 4-5.
Reports on the emergency relief efforts of various nonprofits in response to the September 11 terrorist attacks. Organizations described include the American Red Cross and the Salvation Army.

Causer, Craig; Clolery, Paul; Sinclair, Matthew; Williamson, Richard. "Money Pouring In, Yet Fundraising on Hold." NonProfit Times, vol. 15 (1 October 2001): p. 6.
Describes the effect of the September 11 terrorist attack on fundraising efforts.

Charitable Contributions for September 11: Protecting Against Fraud, Waste, and Abuse. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, 107th Congress, 1st session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001. 102 p.
Includes the testimony of leaders of the following entities: United Way of America, Federal Trade Commission, American Red Cross in Greater New York, International Association of Fire Fighters, September 11th Fund of the New York Community Trust, American Red Cross, New York State Attorney General, Marsh, Inc., and Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance.

Cho, Eunice. "Building Communities, Defeating Fear: Organizing for Immigrant Rights after September 11." Nonprofit Quarterly, vol. 9 (Spring 2002): p. 32-5.
The author, from the National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights, gives a status report.

Cohen, Rick. "Reflecting upon the Charitable Response of September 11: We've Just Begun." Nonprofit Quarterly, vol. 9 (Spring 2002): p. 16-20.
Numerous unique issues were raised by the donations that poured in after September 11, such as how to define a victim, what is excessive charity, use of donations for administrative expenses, and many more. This article outlines some of the major concerns, and argues for the sector to learn from mistakes that were made, and also the unprecedented accomplishments that were achieved.

"Congressional Hearings on 9-11 Relief Organizations: BBB Wise Giving Alliance Speaks Out for Donors." Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Guide, (Winter 2001): p. 4-10.
Reprints excerpts of Congressional testimony by executives of the American Red Cross, Salvation Army, September 11th Fund, and others regarding their organizations' response to donors' expectations and victims' needs.

Greene, Elizabeth; Wolverton, Brad. "Learning the Lessons of September 11: Charities Reassess How They Handled Aid." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (5 September 2002): p. 5, 9, 11.
Explains how charities are learning from their experience with September 11th donations, focusing on the Salvation Army and the American Red Cross.

Corporate Contributions in 2001: Executive Summary. New York, NY: Conference Board, 2003. 10 p.
This is the executive summary of the annual statistical analysis delving into the contributions of 187 companies in 2001. Data indicates a total of $4.52 billion in giving, of which $648 million was earmarked for disaster and relief related to the September 11 attacks.

Cox, Linda R. September 11th Relief Funds: A Report at Six Months. New York, NY: New York Regional Association of Grantmakers, 2002. 12 p.
Lists 37 relief funds that responded to the needs of victims and families in the wake of September 11, and provides some statistics about the amounts raised and distributed, as well as the charities' approach to the task at hand.

Cross, Devon Gaffney. "Arms and the Foundation." Philanthropy, vol. 16 (January-February 2002): p. 22-5.
Author asserts that foundations should play a greater role in supporting national security in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks.

Curtis, Jody. "Set Up before the Sun Set." Foundation News & Commentary, vol. 42 (November-December 2001): p. 28-31.
Explains how the September 11th Fund came about, and its progress to date in supporting the families of September 11 victims.

Derryck, Dennis; Abzug, Rikki. "Lessons from Crisis: New York City Nonprofits Post-September 11." Nonprofit Quarterly, vol. 9 (Spring 2002): p. 6-11.
The authors provide a look at how neighborhood nonprofits in New York City have fared in the two months after the destruction of the September 11 attacks, based on their survey of more than one hundred that replied to their questionnaire.

Derryck, Dennis; Abzug, Rikki. The WTC Tragedy Ripple Effect Devastates Neighborhood Nonprofits. New York, NY: New School University. Milano Graduate School of Management and Urban Policy, 2001. 12 p.
Reports the results of a survey of 125 neighborhood organizations taken in the first two months after the September 11 attacks in New York City. Eighty percent of the nonprofits indicated that they had been adversely impacted, but many had recovered by the time of the survey.

"Donors Respond to Terror: A Symposium." Philanthropy, vol. 15 (November-December 2001): p. 11-3.
Representatives from various foundations explain how the September 11 attacks and the current recession will impact their giving patterns.

Feller, Michael. "Minding the Gaps." Foundation News & Commentary, vol. 43 (September-October 2002): p. 24-7.
The employees of the J. P. Morgan Chase Foundation experienced the events of September 11 at close range, and committed substantial funds for the relief effort immediately after the disaster. The president of the foundation explains their grantmaking strategy, and the lessons they learned.

Fickenscher, Lisa. "Charities, Feds Leave Small Firms Out in the Cold." Crain's New York Business, vol. 18 (4 March 2002): p. 1, 41.
Little money is finding its way to aid the small businesses in New York that were most affected by the attacks on the World Trade Center. Most of the charities that are involved are directing their support to the families of the victims.

"Foundation and Corporate Grants to Relief Funds: A Sampling." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 13 (4 October 2001): p. 18, 20.
A listing of foundations and companies that have donated to the American Red Cross, September 11th Fund, and other beneficiaries for disaster relief efforts.

"The Giving Climate: New Normalcy, New Vigilance." Advancing Philanthropy, vol. 9 (January-February 2002): p. 21-4, 46.
Advice about approaching donors in the wake of September 11.

"Giving for September 11: The View from Ground Zero." Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Guide, (Fall 2002): p. 2-5.
Brief interviews with representatives of City Harvest, the Lower Manhattan Cultural Council, and Safe Horizon, all of whom were affected by the World Trade Center attacks, and the September 11th Fund, which was created to assist the victims and their families.

Global Philanthropic Strategies for a Post-September 11th World: A Working Paper for Individual and Institutional Donors. New York, NY: Rockefeller Philanthropy Office/The Philanthropic Collaborative, Inc., 2001. 19 p.
A working paper on grantmaking strategies.

Gose, Ben. "42% of Americans Say Relief Effort Damaged Faith in Nonprofit Groups." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (5 September 2002): p. 12
Reports results from a Chronicle survey of 1,000 Americans on public confidence in nonprofits after September 11.

Gose, Ben. "Terrorist Attacks Did Not Cause Major Shift in Focus of Most Grant Makers." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (5 September 2002): p. 15-6, 18.
Explains that few foundations have changed their funding priorities for areas such as homeland security and international peace efforts since the September 11 terrorist attacks. Provides several examples of grantmakers that are responding to the terrorist threat.

Greene, Elizabeth. "Disaster-Relief Funds Face Tough Decisions on How To Put Good Will to Good Use." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 13 (4 October 2001): p. 14-7.
Foundations and grantmaking public charities are determining how to spend the funds that have been raised for the victims of the September 11 terrorist attack. Several nonprofits including the Black United Fund of New York are concerned that prejudices may hinder funding to minority groups. Contains a listing of organizations that are collecting contributions for relief efforts.

Greene, Elizabeth; Wolverton, Brad. "Learning the Lessons of September 11: Charities Reassess How They Handled Aid." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (5 September 2002): p. 5, 9, 11.
Explains how charities are learning from their experience with September 11 donations, focusing on the Salvation Army and the American Red Cross.

Greene, Stephen G. "Borderless Giving Crucial to Solving Global Strife, Experts Say." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (21 March 2002): p. 10-1.
Discusses remarks from a conference organized by the Global Philanthropy Forum. Some speakers touched on promoting an international philanthropic vision in the aftermath of September 11. Nonprofit leaders also addressed the AIDS epidemic and spoke on the needs of Central Asia.

Greene, Stephen G. "In Disaster's Wake." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (5 September 2002): p. 4-6, 8.
Explains that the public may have lost confidence in charities after September 11, as critics question the nonprofit sector's ability to handle similar disasters. Observers suggest charities missed opportunities to effectively harness the good will of volunteers and to clearly communicate the value of the nonprofit sector to the public.

Higgins, Heather R. "Fighting Back: How to Avert a Charitable Calamity." Philanthropy, vol. 15 (November-December 2001): p. 9-10.
Suggests changes in federal tax policy that could encourage philanthropy in the wake of the September 11 attacks.

Hinds, Michael deCourcy. "Nonprofits at Ground Zero: Struggling to Survive, Their Missions Point the Way." Carnegie Reporter, vol. 1 (Spring 2002): p. 22-32.
Profiles of four nonprofits whose offices were in the World Trade Center neighborhood: Four Way Books, Safe Horizon, Robin Hood Foundation, and Futures and Options. Their stories sketch out how they experienced the events of September 11 and the months after, as each worked to resume services.

Hoyt, David. "Under Pressure: Where the Charitable Response to 9/11 Went Wrong." Stanford Social Innovation Review, vol. 2 (Summer 2004): p. 66-73.
A case study of the September 11th Fund, which was created on the day of the terrorist attacks in New York City by a collaboration between the New York Community Foundation and the United Way of New York City. While the outpouring of donations to the Fund was unprecedented, and thousands of people were helped, the lack of coordinated and effective communication to the public resulted in several negative stories in the media. Strains developed between the two agencies as some critics questioned the role of the Fund.

Indiana University Center on Philanthropy. America Gives: Survey of Americans' Generosity after September 11. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Center on Philanthropy, 2002. 7 p.
Co-published with the Association of Fundraising Professionals, this presents the results of a survey of more than 1,300 households about their giving or volunteering in the wake of the terrorist attacks on September 11.

Indiana University Center on Philanthropy; Brown, Melissa S. (ed.) Giving USA 2004: The Annual Report on Philanthropy for the Year 2003. 49th ed. Indianapolis, IN: American Association of Fund Raising Counsel Trust for Philanthropy, 2004. v, 260 p
An annual statistical analysis of charitable contributions, distribution, donors, recipients, sources of philanthropy, and areas of philanthropic opportunity; this edition covers 2003. Sources analyzed include individuals, bequests, foundations, and corporations. Areas of philanthropic opportunity that are compared for various periods up to 2003 are religion; education; health; human services; arts, culture, and humanities; public/society benefit; environment/wildlife; and international affairs. A separate section lists studies of giving in specific states. Contains numerous charts, lists, and statistical tables. Of particular note are the listings of gifts of five million dollars or more by individuals. Includes a table of the National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities. This edition contains a special section on the subject of philanthropy related to September 11.

Jones, David R.; Campbell, David. "Philanthropy and 9/11: How Did We Do?" Responsive Philanthropy, (Fall 2002): p. 1, 12-5.
A report card on the results of charitable giving and disbursement after September 11.

Jones, Jeff; Sinclair, Matthew. "Grantmakers' Changes Rooted in Economy, Not Terrorism Fears." NonProfit Times, vol. 16 (1 November 2002): p. 28, 36.
Summarizes findings from the Foundation Center report, Assessing the Post-September 11 Funding Environment: Grantmakers' Perspective. Over 330 grantmakers responded to the survey that was conducted in Spring 2002. The results indicate that approximately 95 percent of respondents did not change their funding focus after September 11.

Jones, Jeff. "Most Donors Believe Money Was Used Wisely." NonProfit Times, vol. 16 (1 September 2002): p. 1, 12.
Provides results from a NonProfit Times/Ruotolo Associates national survey on September 11 donations that was taken in late June. Half of the people polled indicated that they gave to September 11 causes, and two-thirds of people who made donations felt that nonprofits used the funds properly.

Jones, Jeff. "Nonprofits Fear False Accusations of Terror Grants." NonProfit Times, vol. 17 (1 May 2003): p. 1, 4, 6.
Describes laws and voluntary guidelines issued by the federal government to prevent charitable donations from funding terrorism. Discusses how these measures are affecting international grantmaking. Sidebar lists additional resources to help nonprofits comply with guidelines.

Jones, Jeff. "Questions Raised about How IRS OK'd Status." NonProfit Times, vol. 16 (1 September 2002): p. 1, 4-5.
Describes research performed by NonProfit Times reporters in an effort to contact nonprofits that received expedited tax-exempt status for September 11-related causes. While the reporters had difficulty obtaining information from the organizations, there have been relatively few cases of fraud reported in New York. Changes to the federal tax code have been proposed so that federal officials can disseminate information to state regulators.

Lake, Eli. "Leading the Charge: Top Donors and Grantees on the Private Sector's Role in Defending America." Philanthropy, vol. 17 (November-December 2003): p. 17-21.
A status report on some of the anti-terrorism initiatives by the following donors: German Marshall Fund, JM Foundation, John M. Olin Foundation, Lauder Foundation, Merrill Family Foundation, Rosenkranz Foundation, Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation, David Steinmann, Stuart Family Foundation, and the W. H. Donner Foundation. Programs by the following grantees are also described briefly: American Enterprise Institute, Asia Pacific Initiative, Aspen Institute Berlin, Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America, Foreign Policy Research Institute, Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, Freedom House, Imagine New York, Institute of World Politics, International Center for Nonviolent Conflict, Investigative Project, Islam and American Democracy Project, Middle East Forum, Middle East Media Research Institute, National Interest, Philip Merrill Center for Strategic Studies, Project for a New American Century, and Shalem Center.

Lipman, Harvy. "IRS Handling of September 11 Charities Shows Weakness of Approval System, Critics Say." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (7 March 2002): p. 8, 10.
Nonprofit organizations responding to the September 11 terrorist attacks were granted tax-exempt status under an expedited approval process. Critics of the Internal Revenue Service's review system insist that several of the approved nonprofits had nothing to do with the September 11 disaster.

Lipman, Harvy. "Majority of Funds Raised after September 11 Have Been Distributed." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 15 (4 September 2003): p. 16-7.
Provides results from the Chronicle's survey of 28 charities. Indicates 80 percent of the $2.4 billion raised has been allocated.

Lyman, Timothy R.; Considine, Michael G.; Sachs, Jennifer L. "International Grantmaking after September 11: Dealing with Executive Order 13224 and the USA PATRIOT Act." International Dateline, vol. 64 (Fall 2002): p. 1-4.
Explains the provisions of laws passed after September 11 that impact funders, and outlines how grantmakers can best comply with the new regulations.

Maehara, Paulette V. "Let Ethics Be Your Fundraising Guide." Association Management, vol. 54 (July 2002): p. 30-4, 36-7.
Discusses fundraising ethics in the wake of the controversies surrounding the use of the September 11th Fund and the Red Cross Liberty Fund. Explains how fundraisers should develop trust, educate donors, demonstrate accountability, minimize risk, and protect donor privacy.

McKivergan, Daniel. "Bankrolling Terror." Philanthropy, vol. 12 (November-December 1998): p. 38-41.
Discusses the prevalence of U.S.-based organizations that fundraise for terrorist activities around the world.

Melcher, Michael F.; Mandl, Alex. The Philanthropic Response to 9/11: A Practical Analysis and Recommendations. New York, NY: Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP, 2003. 42 p.
The report is based on interviews with service providers, foundations, government agencies, and others, and also includes several recommendations for disaster planning.

Morrison & Foerster LLP. Helping Handbook for Small Business Affected by the World Trade Center Disaster. New York, NY: Association of the Bar of the City of New York, 2001. 50 p.

Meyerson, Adam. "Pitching in: Philanthropy's Role in the War on Terror." Philanthropy, vol. 15 (November/December 2001): p. 7-8.
Discusses the importance of philanthropy in the wake of the September 11 attacks. Suggests that private funding can foster new ideas on foreign policy, encourage research on emergency preparedness, and support organizations that promote tolerance in the Islamic world.

Pulley, John L. "Fund-Raising Efforts Proliferate for Families of Terrorists' Victims." Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 48 (2 November 2001): p. A35-6.
Describes the scholarship funds that colleges and grantmakers are establishing for family members of victims of the September 11 terrorist attack.

Putnam, Robert D. "Bowling Together." American Prospect, vol. 13 (11 February 2002): 5 p.
Putnam, author of Bowling Alone, claims that the events of September 11 radically changed how Americans experience their sense of community. He presents here the results of surveys he conducted in 2000 and again in the fall of 2001, measuring levels of trust in the government, civic involvement and other issues.

Ramos, Edgardo; Lyman, Timothy R.; Canavan, Patricia; Nichols, Clifford, III. Handbook on Counter-Terrorism Measures: What U. S. Nonprofits and Grantmakers Need to Know. Hartford, CT: Day, Berry & Howard Foundation, Inc., 2004. vii, 25 p.
Provides an overview of Executive Order 13224, the USA PATRIOT Act, and other regulations that may affect international grantmaking.

"Recovering from a National Tragedy: Women's Special Role." Women's Philanthropy Institute News, (December 2001): p. 1, 3.
Discusses women's philanthropic role in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks.

Reiss, Alvin H. "Arts Respond in Time of Crisis." Fund Raising Management, vol. 32 (November 2001): p. 26, 35.
Describes how arts organizations have helped with relief efforts in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Some arts groups have donated proceeds from performances, while other organizations have provided free programs.

Renz, Loren; Cuccaro, Elizabeth; Marino, Leslie. 9/11 Relief and Regranting Funds: A Summary Report on Funds Raised and Assistance Provided. New York, NY: Foundation Center, 2003. 27 p.
This survey of 111 9/11-related relief funds revealed that 64.2 percent of these organizations had planned to distribute 100 percent of the funds they raised by year-end 2003. Further, nearly all relief funds with unspent contributions have specific plans for distributing their remaining funds, such as providing long-term assistance and scholarships for children of victims. In addition to the survey findings that are presented in part one, the second part of the report analyzes the actual donations received by 40 of the largest funds, as well as how these funds have distributed this support. Overall, excluding donations from one fund to another, these funds have raised almost $2.9 billion for relief and recovery and contributed $2.2 billion, accounting for the vast majority of dollars raised and disbursed by the more than 350 relief funds created after 9/11. The analysis provides precise breakdowns of funds distributed and estimates of unspent funds by beneficiary group and type of assistance.

Renz, Loren. Assessing the Post-9/11 Funding Environment: Grantmakers' Perspectives. New York, NY: Foundation Center, 2002. 8 p.
Based on a nationwide survey of 333 grantmakers, this report examines the impact of foundations' and corporations' response to the September 11 tragedy on their overall giving, and assesses the relative impact of the 9/11 response vs. the economic downturn on giving patterns and practices.

Renz, Loren; Marino, Leslie. Giving in the Aftermath of 9/11: 2003 Update on the Foundation and Corporate Response. New York, NY: Foundation Center, 2003. 16 p.
Based on data collected through September 2003, this report provides statistics on institutional donors (independent and family foundations, corporate foundations and direct giving programs, community and other public foundations, as well as trade and business associations) in response to the September 11 terrorist attacks. Analyses are provided based on funder type, range of giving, funder location, and recipients.

Rhule, Patty. "After the Attacks: Nonprofits and Volunteers Rush to Aid Victims." Volunteer Leadership, (Fall 2001): p. 20-1.
A sampling of efforts around the country.

Rhule, Patty. "Disaster Relief: Volunteers Sign on for the Long Haul." Volunteer Leadership, (Winter 2002): p. 4-8.
Some examples of the outpouring of volunteer aid after the September 11 attacks, and advice on preparation for disasters.

Salamon, Lester M. "What Really Matters about September 11." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (5 September 2002): p. 47-8.
Salamon opines on the response of nonprofits to the cataclysmic events of September 11. Though the philanthropic response was unprecedented and remarkably generous, the coordination of organizations left something to be desired, and that fact will have implications for the future. He warns against "go-it-alone" philanthropy. He suggests that Americans pay greater attention to social justice concerns, noting the relationship of terrorism to the underlying despair that may spawn it, and citing statistics that indicate that the percentage of charitable monies funneled to human services has declined in recent decades. Finally, Salamon encourages Americans to look more closely at efforts to support emerging movements for civil society in the international Islamic community.

Schram, Sanford F. "Social Welfare after September 11." Nonprofit Quarterly, vol. 9 (Spring 2002): p. 21-4.
State budgets are adversely impacted by the loss of the federal budget surplus, and the effect on social welfare programs could be dire, according to this analysis. Other forces are also eating away at the social safety net, and the author decries the erosion of government support for basic needs.

Schwinn, Elizabeth. "Easing of IRS Policy Lets Relief Groups Disburse Funds Regardless of Need." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (29 November 2001): p. 30.
In an exception to IRS regulations, funds raised for the victims and families of the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington can be distributed by charities to individuals regardless of need. The new ruling is not without its critics, however. The policy is Notice 2001-78.

Schwinn, Elizabeth. "Guarding against Future Threats." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (15 November 2001): p. 19-20.
Outlines some recent efforts to work against terrorism. The Global Terrorism Project has received funding from several foundations; the MacArthur Foundation has earmarked $5 million; and the Nathan Cummings Foundation has pledged $500,000 to protect the civil liberties of Arab Americans.

Seessel, Tom. The Philanthropic Response to 9/11: A Report Prepared for the Ford Foundation. Trenton, NJ: Thomas Edison State College, 2002. viii, 63 p.
Provides short descriptions of the response of foundations, corporations, and relief organizations to the needs created by the September 11 attacks. The foundations are: Andrew W. Mellon, Lilly Endowment, Ford, Carnegie Corporation of New York, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur, Charles Stewart Mott, Robert Wood Johnson, Rockefeller, Atlantic Philanthropies, Starr, John S. and James L. Knight, Annie E. Casey, and the Lumina Foundation for Education. The corporations are: Marsh & McLennan, Keefe, Bruyette & Woods, Citigroup Foundation, New York Times Company Foundation, and Goldman Sachs. Also included are the American Red Cross, the September 11th Fund, the Twin Towers Fund, the 9/11 Disaster Relief Fund of the International Association of Fire Fighters, the New York Police and Fire Widows' and Children's Benefit Fund, and Safe Horizon.

Seessel, Tom. Responding to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks: Lessons from Relief and Recovery in New York City. Trenton, NJ: Thomas Edison State College, 2003. 43 p.
This report supplements a Ford Foundation report, "The Philanthropic Response to 9/11," released in August 2002 on the philanthropic response in relief and recovery for New York City following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

"September 11 Donations: How Much Charities Have Raised and Distributed." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (15 November 2001): p. 16-7.
A chart showing the activities of 29 organizations that have raised money related to September 11, and how the funds are being disbursed.

September 11: Interim Report on the Response of Charities. Washington, DC: U. S. General Accounting Office, [2002]. ii, 37 p.
This is the presentation made on August 21, 2002 by the General Accounting Office to the Committee on Finance of the U. S. Senate. The report covered data about monies raised and disbursed by charities that were aiding victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks.

September 11: Perspectives from the Field of Philanthropy. New York, NY: Foundation Center, 2002. viii, 182 p.
Essays by or interviews of leaders from the nonprofit sector, reflecting on various aspects of the response to the September 11 attacks. Contents include: "Managing Charitable Giving in the Wake of Disaster" by C. Eugene Steuerle; "Reflections on September 11 Legal Developments" by Victoria B. Bjorklund (Simpson Thacher & Bartlett); "Disaster Relief, Donor Intent, and Public Accountability" by Mark Edelman (American Red Cross); "Regulating Charitable Relief" by Marla Simpson and Karin Goldman (New York State Charities Bureau); "Supporting the Recovery of Nonprofit Organizations" by Clara Miller (Nonprofit Finance Fund); "Assessing the Economic Impact on Chinatown" by Christopher Kui (Asian Americans for Equality); "Impact on the Arts" by Virginia Louloudes (Alliance of Resident Theatres/New York); "The Challenges for Human Services" by Ralph Dickerson and Larry Mandell (United Way of New York City); "Maximizing America's Generosity" by Lorie Slutsky (New York Community Trust); "Assessing Immediate and Longer-Term Needs" by Joshua Gotbaum (September 11th Fund); "Cash Assistance for Immediate Needs" by Gordon J. Campbell (Safe Horizon); "Coordinating Support for Long-Term Educational Needs" by Charles "Chip" Raymond (Citigroup Foundation); "Civil Liberties and September 11" by Gara LaMarche (Open Society Institute); "September 11 as Symptom" by Robert K. Ross (California Endowment); "Terrorism, Civil Society, and International Security" by Jonathan F. Fanton (John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation); "September 11 and Beyond" by Susan V. Berresford (Ford Foundation).

September 11: Perspectives from the Field of Philanthropy, Volume Two. New York, NY: Foundation Center, 2003. viii, 208 p.
Essays by or interviews of leaders from the nonprofit sector, reflecting further on various aspects of the response to the September 11 attacks. Contents of Volume Two include: "Compassion & Competence: A Non-Philanthropist Reflects on the Contributions of Philanthropy" by Joshua Gotbaum (September 11th Fund); "Nonprofits and 9/11: Now the Good News" by Susan V. Berresford (Ford Foundation); "Philanthropy and Domestic Terrorism" by Nancy Anthony (Oklahoma City Community Foundation); "Mobilizing Resources to Meet the Needs of Pentagon Families" by Terri Lee Freeman (Community Foundation for the National Capital Region); "Helping Undocumented Immigrants in the Wake of 9/11" by Teresa Garcia (Asociación Tepeyac de New York); "The Impact of 9/11 on Low-Income Workers" by David R. Jones (Community Service Society of New York); "Forging Connections in Response to Disaster" by Jack Rosenthal (New York Times Company Foundation); "Helping the Arts and Artists Recover in the Wake of 9/11" by Theodore S. Berger (New York Foundation for the Arts); "Working to Expand Access to Higher Education for All Americans" by Martha Lamkin (Lumina Foundation for Education); "Philanthropy in a Post-9/11 World" by Vartan Gregorian (Carnegie Corporation of New York); "Democracy as an Antidote to Terrorism" by Benjamin R. Barber (author); "Development and Democracy in Post-9/11 Asia" by William Fuller (Asia Foundation); "Human Rights in an Age of Terror" by Ken Roth (Human Rights Watch); "September 11 and the Arab American Community" by James Zogby (Arab American Institute); "The Media Response to 9/11" by Hodding Carter III (John S. and James L. Knight Foundation); "Media, Charity, and Philanthropy in the Aftermath of September 11" by Paula DiPerna (author); "Coordinating Service Delivery to Victims of the World Trade Center Attack" by Stephen Solender (9/11 United Services Group); "Meeting the Long-Term Needs of Individuals, Families, and Communities" by Carol Kellerman (September 11th Fund); and "The Oral History of 9/11" by Mary Marshall Clark (Oral History Research Office, Columbia University).

The September 11th Fund: One Year Later. [New York]: September 11th Fund, [2002]. 46 p.
A progress report on the September 11th Fund that describes accomplishments and ongoing activities. Includes several first-person accounts.

September 11th: Lessons Learned. Washington, DC: Washington Regional Association of Grantmakers, 2002. 30 p.
Short essays by the heads of many of the organizations involved in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks at the Pentagon: Federal Emergency Management Agency, American Red Cross, Army Emergency Relief, Navy-Marine Corps Relief Society, Greater DC Cares, Community Services Agency of the Metropolitan Washington Council, AFL-CIO, United Way of the National Capital Area, Community Foundation of the National Capital Region, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, and Washington Grantmakers.

"Shaken Foundations." Trust & Foundation News, vol. 58 (September-November 2001): p. 1, 24.
Describes how foundations located near the World Trade Center have been impacted by the September 11 attacks.

Sinclair, Matthew. "Community Service Projects to Remember Victims of 9-11." NonProfit Times, vol. 16 (1 May 2002): p. 1, 10, 25.
Describes the recently passed Unity in the Spirit of America Act that will sponsor community service programs in the name of the victims of the September 11 attacks. The Points of Light Foundation and Volunteer Center National Network will be overseeing the projects around the nation.

Sinclair, Matthew; Jones, Jeff. "Following the Money: Meeting the Need." NonProfit Times, vol. 16 (1 September 2002): p. 14, 39.
Provides results from a NonProfit Times survey of nearly 300 new charities and funds within existing organizations that were established as a result of the September 11 attacks. Indicates that approximately $2.2 billion was raised and $1.4 billion was disbursed. Also provides specific disbursement figures for several funds.

Sinclair, Matthew. "Mission Served." NonProfit Times, vol. 18 (1 April 2004): p. 1, 5-6.
Organizations that had been created in response to the September 11 attacks have begun preparations for closing, or have already closed. The 9-11 United Services Group that was established to coordinate relief efforts will cease operations by the end of 2004. The number of people seeking assistance from traditional programs is likely to increase during the transition period.

Sinclair, Matthew. "Quick Action, Long Reflection Mark Tragic Year." NonProfit Times, vol. 16 (1 September 2002): p. 1, 6, 8.
Discusses lessons that nonprofit leaders have learned about fundraising and disaster relief since the September 11 attacks. Sidebar includes a chart listing the top six relief funds along with disbursement figures.

Sinclair, Matthew. "United Ways Mobilize National Support System: Funneling Money Where It's Needed." NonProfit Times, vol. 15 (1 October 2001): p. 6-7.
Describes how United Ways across the nation have responded to the September 11 terrorist attack. The United Way of New York City and the New York Community Trust established the September 11th Fund.

Souccar, Miriam Kreinin. "Bleak Months in Offing for Arts Groups." Crain's New York Business, vol. 17 (26 November 2001): p. 3, 47.
Most arts groups in New York City foresee a decline in attendance, sales, and fundraising in the next six months, largely due to the effects of the attack on September 11.

Souccar, Miriam Kreinin. "United Way Slashes Funds for Agencies." Crain's New York Business, vol. 18 (15 July 2002): p. 1, 44.
Many New York City nonprofits will find their United Way grants much smaller this year, due to the fact that about half of the agency's receipts were earmarked for victim relief related to September 11.

Suhrke, Henry C. "A Wannabe Federal Charity Regulator Tries Again." Philanthropy Monthly, vol. 34 (#7-8 2002): p. 5-12.
The Federal Trade Commission has been charged with overseeing charitable solicitation by for-profits, in the wake of several fraudulent schemes after September 11. This is not the first time the FTC has attempted this regulatory role, as this history indicates. The most recent effort is part of the USA PATRIOT Act, legislation passed in the autumn of 2001.

Summary of Findings: Survey of Foundation Communications Issues Post-September 11. Communications Network, [2002]. 3 p.
Presents the results of a survey of 32 communications directors of foundations regarding how their priorities changed (or did not) after September 11, and how the communications function and budget was impacted.

"Under Pressure." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (15 November 2001): p. 9.
Now, two months after an unprecedented outpouring of monetary support for victims of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, tough questions are arising. Congress, the press, and the public are looking closely at how funds are disbursed, and some charities are having trouble giving a complete picture. The American Red Cross, and the Liberty Fund that it created, have been a special focus of attention; leaders there are criticized for their plans to earmark a substantial part of the funds in reserve for other needs. In light of the controversy, the organization's chief executive Bernadine Healy has resigned. Other charities have yet to distribute any funds. Some critics are calling for government oversight of the entire relief effort.

Wallace, Nicole. "Online Giving Soars as Donors Turn to the Internet Following Attacks." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 13 (4 October 2001): p. 22.
Describes the rise in online giving after the September 11 terrorist attack. The American Red Cross reported it has raised $60 million over the Internet thus far.

Wallace, Nicole. "Technology Plays Many Roles in Aftermath of Disaster." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 13 (4 October 2001): p. 22.
Companies donated hardware and developed Web sites to help with the September 11 relief efforts.

Whelan, David. "September 11 Fund Discourages New Gifts: Studies Show Tragedy's Effect on Charities." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (24 January 2002): p. 18, 20.
Provides highlights from several studies that analyze the impact of the September 11 attacks on nonprofits.

White, Doug. "How Can Donors Know When a Charity Is 'Terrorist'?" Trusts & Estates, vol. 142 (May 2003): p. 66-7.
Safeguards that donors can take to reduce the possibility that charitable monies will be utilized to support terrorist activities.

Wilhelm, Ian; Williams, Grant. "American Red Cross Names Interim Chief and Vows Additional Changes." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (15 November 2001): p. 10.
In the wake of the controversy over the disbursement of funds collected for the victims of September 11, Harold Decker has been appointed interim chief executive, replacing Bernadine Healy. Healy was criticized for decisions made involving the Liberty Fund, which has collected $564 million to date in gifts and pledges. Decker comes from a background in the pharmaceutical industry.

Wilhelm, Ian. "Former OMB Executive Steps in to Run September 11th Fund." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (15 November 2001): p. 18.
An interview with Joshua Gotbaum, who has been appointed chief executive of the September 11th Fund, created by the New York Community Trust and the United Way of New York City.

Wilhelm, Ian. "Half of $2-Billion Raised for September 11 Given Away; Other Recovery Updates." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (7 March 2002): p. 14-5.
Provides results from a Chronicle survey of organizations that were raising funds for September 11 relief efforts. Sidebar includes a listing of the charities and how much each has distributed thus far.

Wilhelm, Ian. "Nonprofit Groups Search for Better Ways to Manage Disaster Volunteers." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (5 September 2002): p. 13-4.
Explains that the poor coordination by charities and emergency personnel in managing volunteers after September 11 has prompted nonprofit and government leaders to examine better procedures for handling large numbers of emergency workers. Discusses the challenges and risks involved when working with so-called spontaneous volunteers.

Wilhelm, Ian. "Red Cross Fund Raiser Takes on Unforeseen Challenges." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 13 (4 October 2001): p. 28.
Profiles Michael D. Farley, a senior fundraiser at the American Red Cross. Provides excerpts from an interview conducted after the September 11 terrorist attack.

Wilhelm, Ian. "Red Cross Plans to Spend All Donations to Help September 11 Attack Victims." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (29 November 2001): p. 30.
In a turnaround, the American Red Cross has decided to allocate all funds raised for the relief efforts to the September 11 families of victims. Earlier, the organization had planned to earmark some of the donations for future disasters, a plan that was widely criticized.

Williams, Grant. "Turmoil at the Red Cross: Critics Blame Charity's Leader for Problems in Wake of Attacks." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 14 (1 November 2001): 2001.
Reports that the American Red Cross, along with its president Bernadine P. Healy, has been facing criticism for the way fundraising efforts have been managed after the September 11 attack. There is confusion over the amount that victims, families, and rescue workers will receive from the charity's Liberty Fund.

Williams, Roger M. "In Solomon's Footsteps: Conversation with Kenneth Feinberg." Foundation News & Commentary, vol. 43 (September-October 2002): p. 20-3.
Kenneth Feinberg heads up the September 11 Victim Compensation Fund of 2001, which was established by the U.S. Congress. In this interview he explains his work and the role of the charity.

Williams, Roger M.; Siska, Darlene. "New York Philanthropy after the Attacks." Foundation News & Commentary, vol. 42 (November-December 2001): p. 22-6.
A roundup about the response of foundations and nonprofits to the September 11 attacks in New York City. Some of the featured programs are Futures & Options for Kids, American Express Foundation, Deutsche Bank Americas Foundation, and Trinity Church. A sidebar presents an interview with Barbara Bryan, head of the New York Regional Association of Grantmakers.

Williamson, Richard; Sinclair, Matthew. "Islamic Charities under Spotlight's Red Glare." NonProfit Times, vol. 16 (1 January 2002): p. 1, 6, 11.
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the federal government is working to seize the assets of several Islamic nonprofits with alleged ties to terrorist groups. Charities such as the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development in Texas have denied involvement in any terrorist activity.

Williamson, Richard. "Money Comes between Charities, Terror Victims." NonProfit Times, vol. 15 (1 December 2001): p. 1, 6, 8.
Facing controversy over the management of the Liberty Fund, the American Red Cross has announced that all of the $543 million raised will go toward helping September 11 victims and their families. Discusses the organizational restructuring after the departure of Dr. Bernadine Healy.

Wirthlin Worldwide. A Survey of Charitable Giving after September 11th, 2001. Washington, DC: Independent Sector, 2001. 10 p.
Presents the results of a national telephone survey of more than one thousand Americans in October 2001. Among the major findings, it shows that one in seven Americans donated money, blood, or time in the weeks after the attack.

 
foundationcenter.org
© Foundation Center
All Rights Reserved.
Privacy Policy