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Topical Resource Lists

Funding and Managing Arts Organizations:
A Resource List

Managers of arts organizations need to constantly devise strategies to reach new audiences and to build financial support for their institutions. This resource list contains citations to selected works from the Foundation Center's bibliographic database Catalog of Nonprofit Literature of particular interest to arts managers and fundraisers. For complete bibliographies on various arts-related topics, search the Catalog of Nonprofit Literature (sample search).

Funding Arts Organizations

Internet Resources

Grants for Arts, Culture, & the Humanities. Digital edition. Foundation Center, annual.
Lists over 25,500 grants made by over 1,150 foundations for a variety of arts and cultural programs, including the visual and performing arts, arts education, music, art conservation, film and video, radio and television, literature and writing, architecture, historic preservation, museums, and planetariums. Grants are indexed by recipient name, location, and subject. Available for purchase
Foundation Directory Online
A subscription-based service that allows you to search the Foundation Center's database of grantmakers. Free access is available at Foundation Center library/learning centers and Cooperating Collections.

Grantmakers in the Arts
Learn more about philanthropy in the arts from the only national organization that focuses on grantmaking in arts and culture. Provides links to members' Web sites. Find out about funding trends by browsing the Grantmakers in the Arts (GIA) Reader.

National Endowment for the Arts (NEA)
Explore the NEA's Web site for useful links to organizations, programs, and grant listings in a wide range of arts fields.

Philanthropy News Digest - Requests for Proposals
Browse the Philanthropy New Digest's database of RFPs and other notices of awards for funding opportunities related to arts and culture.


Federal Resource Guide Series. Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts, 2006. Call Number: 202 AME FED #1-6
The guides explain how arts organizations can obtain resources through government programs in six areas: arts education, Congressional earmarks, community development block grants, international cultural exchanges, and military base redevelopment, and transportation enhancements. Available at the Americans for the Arts web site.

Slaying the Financial Dragon: Strategies for Museums. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums, 2003. v, 123 p. Call Number: 205 SLA
Various experts show how to establish and nurture a multi-faceted, long-term fundraising strategy. The specific approaches involve corporate giving, funding by cities, counties, and states, tourism, earned revenue, and individual giving.

Surveys and Reports

Cowen, Tyler. Good and Plenty: The Creative Successes of American Arts Funding. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006. vii, 196 p. Call Number: 820 COW
Cowen, an economist, delves into the debate over government funding for the arts in this far-reaching analysis. Preview this title on Google Book Search

Funding Media, Strengthening Democracy: Grantmaking for the 21st century. New York, NY: Grantmakers in Film + Electronic Media, 2010. 60 p.
Explores the size and scope of media funding, based on background research, an online survey, roundtable discussions, interviews, and data-sharing with journalists and other researchers. Includes recommendations for media grantmaking. FULL TEXT

The Future of Private Sector Giving to the Arts in America. Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts, 2007. 26 p. Subject File Number: 202
Summary of research and recommendations put forth at the 2006 National Arts Policy Roundtable. Research shows that funding for arts organizations is dropping across the philanthropic sector. The report lists policy recommendations by sector, including business, foundation, individual, and government giving. FULL TEXT

How the United States Funds the Arts, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts. 2007. viii, 24 p. Call Number: 810
The text differentiates the roles of federal, state, and local agencies, as well as other public entities, along with descriptions of private sources of support. The conclusion describes the complex and evolving web of funding resources. FULL TEXT

Lawrence, Steven. "Vital Signs: Arts Funding in the Current Economy." Grantmakers in the Arts Reader, vol. 20 (June 2009)
Examines the outlook for foundation grants to arts and culture in 2009, including corporate foundation giving, based on data from the Foundation Center. Also includess Angela Han's analysis "Public Funding for the Arts: 2009 Update." FULL TEXT.

Marudas, Nicholas P. and Fred A. Jacobs. "The Extent of Excessive or Insufficient Fundraising Among U.S. Arts Organizations and the Effect of Organizational Efficiency on Donations to U.S. Arts Organizations." International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. vol. 12 (August 2007): p. 267-73.
With statistical tables and bibliographical references.

National Arts Index 2009: An Annual Measure of the Vitality of Arts and Culture in the United States. Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts, 2010. 136 p.
Explores 76 arts and culture activity indicators from 1998 to 2008. The indicators represent several key areas, including financial flows, capacity, arts participation, and competitiveness. FULL TEXT

Prescott, Kate. The Quality and Nature of Corporate Support for the Arts: A Pilot Study. Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts, 2007. Subject File Number: 202
Business executives were interviewed to explore their views on corporate philanthropy in the arts. Topics covered in the research study include corporate giving priorities, arts funding requests, arts-business partnerships, and more. The report concludes with recommendations to help arts organizations strengthen relationships with corporations, noting that arts councils can play an important role in facilitating these efforts.

Schanke, Robert A. (ed.) Angels in the American Theater: Patrons, Patronage, and Philanthropy. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2007. xiv, 314 p. Call Number: 206 SCH ANG
In this compilation, various specialists contribute essays about patronage of the theater by individual donors, foundations, and corporations. Otto H. Kahn, Lucille Lortel, David Geffen, The MacArthur Foundation, and the Disney Corporation are among those profiled. Schanke's introduction provides a summary of theater funding since 1900. Preview this title on Google Book Search

Managing Arts Organizations

General Management

Byrnes, William J. Management and the Arts. 4th ed. Burlington, MA: Focal Press, 2009. 476 p. Call Number: 202 BYR
The comprehensive textbook explores several topics, including management trends, planning, organizational development, human resources, leadership, budgeting, financial management, marketing, fundraising, and career development.

Cray, David; Loretta Inglis; and Susan Freeman. "Managing the Arts: Leadership and Decision Making Under Dual Rationalities." Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society vol. 36 (Winter 2007) p. 295-313. Subject File Call Number: 202
Discusses the increasing challenges facing arts organizations today, noting that managers must balance the demands of stakeholders while focusing on organizational efficiency. The article reviews leadership styles and decision-making models that may be applicable to arts managers. The authors suggests further research to gain a better understanding of how arts organizations operate.

Dreeszen, Craig (ed.) Fundamentals of Arts Management. 5th ed. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts--Amherst, 2007. xii, 448 p. Call Number: 202 KOR
The broad topics discussed include community organizing, strategic planning, board development, volunteers, program development, arts education, cultural access, evaluation, marketing, fundraising, and financial management. For each topic, a specialist provides information, advice, and worksheets, as well as bibliographic references.

Goldstein, Barbara (ed.) Public Art by the Book. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2005. 327 p. Call Number: 204 GOL
An instruction manual for initiating, executing, and maintaining many types of public arts projects, funded either by government monies or through private sources. Contains many sample documents, including city ordinances, gift acceptance policies, contracts, press releases, as well as numerous case studies of all types of installations.

Grady, Jamie. A Simple Statement: A Guide to Nonprofit Arts Management and Leadership. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2006. xi, 62 p. Call Number: 202 GRA
Chapters are: Values, Mission, and Vision; Basics of Forming a Nonprofit Organization; Board of Trustees; Operational Functions of an Arts Organization; and Management and Leadership.

Hessenius, Barry. Involving Youth in Nonprofit Arts Organizations: A Call to Action. Menlo Park, CA: William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, 2007. 61 p. Subject File Number: 202
This research project report provides recommendations to help the nonprofit arts field develop its next generation of leaders. The project had three components: a survey of youth programs in California arts groups; twelve case studies; and a comparative analysis of youth programs in the environmental field.

Hoye, Sue. "Recession and the Arts: Act II." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 21 (7 May 2009): p. 27-9.
An overview of the economic downturn's impact on arts organizations in the United States. Discusses some of the more creative tactics that these groups are using to cut costs, as well as some general statistics on the arts and economic issues.

Kaiser, Michael M. The Art of the Turnaround: Creating and Maintaining Healthy Arts Organizations. Lebanon, NH: Univeristy Press of New England, 2008. 183 p. Call Number: 206 KAI
The author presents ten rules for reviving financially distressed arts groups, based on his experience from leading several organizations: Kansas City Ballet, the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, American Ballet Theatre, London's Royal Opera House, and the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Topics discussed include leadership, planning, program development, marketing, fundraising, governance issues, and other key areas. Preview this title on Google Book Search

Moskin, Bill and Nancy Glaze. The Arts in Transition: Preparing for a Sustainable Future. Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts, 2007. 14 p. Subject File Number: 202
Offers a brief history of the nonprofit arts sector and an analysis of its current state. Discusses the most significant components facing the changing field in the future, such as technology, diversity, different economic ideas, and generational shifts, and speculates as to how arts organizations can adapt to these changes to ensure sustainability in the coming years.

Ragsdale, Diane E. "Recreating Fine Arts Institutions." Stanford Social Innovation Review, vol. 7, (Fall 2009): p. 36-41.
The author offers suggestions as to how fine arts organizations can adapt themselves to the changing times, gaining new audiences in the face of declining attendance. Her ideas include featuring more low-cost options and catering towards younger, more diverse audiences. FULL TEXT

Stein, Tobie S. and Jessica Bathurst. Performing Arts Management: A Handbook of Professional Practices. New York, NY: Allworth Press, 2008. 541 p. Call Number: 206 STE PER
A comprehensive textbook for students and managers of performing arts. Topics discussed include organizational structures, mission and planning, nonprofit incorporation, commercial productions, financial management, fundraising, marketing, labor relations, facility management, and professional development. Preview this title on Google Book Search

Webb, Duncun M. Running Theaters: Best Practices for Leaders and Managers. New York, NY: Allworth Press, 2005. 256 p.
Topics covered in the guide include facility development, financial management, fundraising, and audience development, among others. Preview this title on Google Book Search


Arts for All: Connecting to New Audiences. New York, NY: Wallace Foundation. 2008. 24 p. Subject File Number: A 010
A report on the Wallace Foundation's April 2008 conference on audience-building in arts organizations. The first part of the report features remarks from the foundation's president on improving arts participation. The second part consists of an essay from Andras Szanto on using marketing, technology, and research as a means to build audiences in the arts. FULL TEXT

Bernstein, Joanne Scheff. Arts Marketing Insights: The Dynamics of Building and Retaining Performing Arts Audiences. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 2007. xx, 294 p. Call Number: 680 BER
In this guide, Bernstein argues that as arts audiences change, arts marketing departments must adapt to maintain or grow attendance. She presents new approaches to arts audience development as well as commonly accepted best practices in marketing. The book utilizes a combination of theory, strategy, tactics, and examples. Arts managers, marketers, fundraisers, board members, educators, and students are the intended audience. Preview this title on Google Book Search

Hoye, Sue. "Culture Flash." Chronicle of Philanthropy, vol. 21 (12 February 2009): p. T2, T4.
Explains how arts organizations are reducing costs by using electronic media for marketing, communications, and fundraising.

Kotler, Neil G.; Philip Kotler; and Wendy Kotler. Museum Marketing and Strategy: Designing Missions, Building Audiences, Generating Revenue and Resources. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 2008. xxx, 511 p. Call Number: 205 KOT
This second edition covers numerous strategic planning and development issues as they relate to museums. Discusses museum audiences and markets, development of exhibits and programs, and building member and volunteer support.

Internet Resources
The Web site contains useful marketing tips for nonprofit arts organizations. Includes a brief FAQ's section for beginners.

National Arts Strategies
National Arts Strategies, formerly National Arts Stabilization, is a nonprofit organization dedicated to helping strengthen arts organizations through the development of managerial and financial skills.

Are you looking for more reports on arts and culture? Try browsing PubHub, a searchable repository of annotated links to reports and issue briefs and subscribe to the PubHub arts RSS feed.
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