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Knowledge From the Field

Adolescent Literacy Programs: Costs of Implementation

Published: September 2009

Publisher(s): Carnegie Corporation of New York

Author(s): Levin, Henry M.; Doran Catlin; Alex Elson

Funder(s): Carnegie Corporation of New York

View Report (33 pages; 704KB; PDF)
Time to Act

Area of Focus: Literacy/Reading Skills


This report reviews the literature on the implementation of multiple literacy programs, and examines differences in implementation and costs among a sample of schools that have adopted one of three well-known reforms READ 180, Questioning the Author, and Reading Apprenticeship. It concludes with recommendations to improve schools chances for achieving positive results with literacy reform.

Key Findings/ Key Recommendations

= Questioning the Author had the lowest cost as no modifications were required in class size, scheduling, personnel, or facilities and materials.

= READ 180 requires appropriate staffing, professional development, and use of the courseware to increase student literacy achievement.

= While two sites experienced success with Reading Apprenticeship, differences in implementation had a large impact on costs.

= Two of the most common reasons for unsuccessful reform implementation were (1) failure to account for all of the necessary resources, and (2) failure to procure the appropriate resources at the outset.

Geographic Focus: National

Subjects/Key Words: Low-performing schools; educational standards; literacy; literacy programs; literacy reform

+ Successful strategy
= Observation
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