Foundations for Education Excellence. Helping foundations leverage public and private funds for improving education.
Foundation Center

Knowledge From the Field

Suspended Education: Urban Middle Schools in Crisis

Published: September 2010

Publisher(s): Civil Rights Project

Author(s): Losen, Daniel J.; Russell Skiba

Funder(s): Annie E. Casey Foundation, Poverty and Race Research Action Council

Related Organization(s): Southern Poverty Law Center

View Report (25 pages; 239KB; PDF)

Suspended Education: Urban Middle Schools in Crisis

Area of Focus: Low-Performing Schools


This report examines the rising frequency of out-of-school suspensions and the effects race/ethnicity and gender have on the likelihood of suspension in middle schools. Focusing on 18 of the nationís largest school districts, the report presents data on suspension rates, studies how suspension is used, and considers what effect being removed from school has on the students.

Key Findings and/or Recommendations

=Trends over time indicate an increase in suspension rates for Black males and females that far exceeds that of Hispanic or White males or females

=Discipline data should be collected annually for all schools and districts in order to help bring the issue of suspension to the forefront of education discussions

=Schools and districts with high suspension rates should be identified and assisted to help reduce the removal of students and improve school climate and safety

=The role of discrimination, whether intentional or not, in determining who gets suspended is a topic that warrants further investigation

-The available data suggest that disciplinary removal from school has negative effects on student outcomes and the learning climate

Geographic Focus: National

Subjects/Keywords: Elementary and Secondary Education; Minorities; Civil and Human Rights; Low-Performing Schools; Suspension; Urban Middle Schools

+ Successful strategy
= Observation
© Foundation Center
All Rights Reserved.
Privacy Policy